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Sistem feudal di england
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He made use of landowners to administer justice all over his realm because Sistrm were not as powerful as the lords who could give serial problem Sistem feudal di england the Monarchy. He made everything to limit the power of the nobles. Ejgland controlled his englsnd by himself and he used every possible means to increase the amount of fudal. He did business with Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark and Florence by selling English clothes and confiscated the lands of rebellious nobles. He also consolidated his power through good marriages that helped to make his enemies his allies: Henry VIII was only seventeen when he became king.
At first, he left the business of state to one of the upstarts of the Tudor period, Thomas Wolsey. When he took back the power, like his predecessors, he decided to increase his power by fighting on the continent. The first military campaigns were against France and Scotland. He won the Scots at Flooden near the Scottish boarder and met the king of France to discuss the peace after taking an enemy town. He made the breach with the Church of Rome for both political and personal reasons. The problem arose when Henry wished to divorce Catherine of Aragon, daughter of the king of Spain, because Catherine had not given him a male child, but only a girl named Mary.
Moreover, he had fallen in love with Anne Boleyn and so he asked the Pope to declare his marriage void on the pretext that it was illegal according to Canon Law because Catherine was his sister-in-law. The Act stated that the king was the "Only Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England" and no foreign state could exercise any spiritual Sistem feudal di england temporal authority on England. In Papal Authority in England was declared extinct. These worldly matters were accompanied by spiritual matters. After all this revolutionary activity, Anne Boleyn did not Sistem feudal di england him a male heir but only a girl named Elisabeth and because of this she was killed The next wife was Jane Seymour, who finally gave him a son called Edward.
Henry gave England a fighting fleet which consisted of modern vessels, different from the heavy round ships with which the Spanish crossed the ocean, good for larger cargoes of gold and silver, but ineffective in battle. The British ships were longer and narrower, with heavy cannon at the portholes. Edward VI was king from toand he was only nine when he became king and he had to face a difficult economical situation; in fact, many farmers had lost their lands because of the Enclosure Act. However, even freehold fiefs were not unconditionally heritable--before inheriting, the heir had to pay a suitable feudal relief. Below the king in the feudal pyramid was a tenant-in-chief generally in the form of a baron or knight who was a vassal of the king, and holding from him in turn was a mesne tenant generally a knight, sometimes a baron, including tenants-in-chief in their capacity as holders of other fiefs who held when sub-enfeoffed by the tenant-in-chief.
Below the mesne tenant further mesne tenants could hold from each other in series.
Meaning of "feudal" in the Malay dictionary
The obligations and corresponding rights between lord and vassal concerning the fief form the basis of the Sistem feudal di england relationship. Vassalage[ edit ] Before a lord could grant land a fief to a tenant, he had to make that person a vassal. This was done at a formal and symbolic ceremony engpand a commendation ceremony composed of the two-part act eng,and homage and oath of fealty. During homage, the lord and vassal entered a contract in which the vassal promised to fight for the lord at his command, whilst the lord agreed to protect the vassal from external forces, a valuable right in a society without police and with only a rudimentary justice system.
The word fealty derives from the Latin fidelitas and denotes the fidelity owed by a vassal to his feudal lord. Fealty also refers to an oath which more explicitly reinforces the commitments of the vassal made during homage. Such an oath follows homage. Once the commendation was complete, the lord and vassal were now in a feudal relationship with agreed-upon mutual obligations to one another. The vassal's principal obligation to the lord was the performance of military service.